New insights deriving from the approach


The Human Givens approach has generated many new insights which are proving not only of great interest, but of huge beneficial benefit in the successful treatment of a wide range of emotional distress and behavioural disorders, as well as providing a solid framework for achieving emotional health and wellbeing.


The expectation fulfilment theory of dreams

Ever since Joe Griffin proposed the expectation fulfilment theory of dreaming, (published in of The Origin in Dreams in 1997 and updated in Dreaming Reality: How dreaming can keep us sane or drive us mad) these new insights into the function of the REM state and why we evolved to dream have transformed many aspects of how we understand human behaviour. These insights include, a scientific explanation for what hypnosis is and a new understand of schizophrenia and psychosis.

To read more about the expectation fulfilment theory of dreaming please visit:


Implications for the understanding and treatment of depression

This new knowledge of the function of the REM state and dreaming has created many new implications for the understanding and treatment of depression. You can find out more about this on the lift depression site:


The APET model: standing cognitive therapy on its head

The APET model is a biologically based model of human functioning designed to be one step beyond the current ABC model favoured by CBT approaches. Proposed by Joe Griffin and Ivan Tyrrell, the APET model places emotional reaction to events before 'thoughts', an order which is confirmed by latest neuroscience research findings and offers a wider range of points of intervention for therapists to utilise. To read more about the APET model please read this article:


Molar Memories: how an ancient mechanism can ruin lives

Molar Memories theory is another useful insight derived from research into the human givens approach that has influenced psychotherapy treatment in the area of compulsive behaviour and irrational anger. Joe Griffin explains that such behaviour could be the result of a privative survival mechanism gone awry. Read the full article here:



To read more articles about how these new insights are helping to make a wide range of professionals more effective in their work, please visit the HGI archive and




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